Normal vision (Emmetropia)

Eyes with normal vision see images at a close distance as well as images at a far distance clearly. The point of refraction is exactly on the retina.

If the point of refraction is not on the retina but in front of it or behind it, blurry images will be produced. This is called a refractive error or is also referred to as bad vision. We differentiate between: 

  • Nearsightedness (myopia)
  • Farsightedness (hyperopia)
  • Astigmatism
  • Presbyopia

Traditionally, refractive errors can be corrected with glasses and contact lenses. In addition, a variety of surgical procedures have been developed over the past two decades which can permanently correct an refractive error. Those procedures are summarized under the term refractive surgery.

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